Ash and Slag
Waste generated from solid fuel burning.
A unit of radionuclide activity in the radiation source, equal to nuclide activity where one nucleus decays per second
Fraction of an initial quantity of a given nuclide that has undergone burnup in reactor under the neutrons influence
According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, business model is a system of transforming the capitals through business activity aiming to fulfil strategic purposes and create value over the short-, medium- and long term
According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, resources and relations being the source and the results of value (integrated value) creation processes.
Water that has been used in the processing cycle, and after cooling or purification it is used for the same purposes.
Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Nuclear fuel cycle where spent nuclear fuel is processed for uranium and plutonium extraction for nuclear fuel remanufacturing
Decommissioning of a reactor facility and follow-up activity to ensure its safe dismantling, equipment disposal and further use of the site
Uranium that contains less isotopes U-235 than natural uranium
Uranium depleted through extraction of U-235, which is economically unfeasible to use; stored at a disposal site (dump)
Dump of Radioactive Material
Controlled entry of radionuclides into water bodies with liquid waste of a nuclear facility.
Enriched Nuclear Fuel
Nuclear fuel where the content of fissionable nuclides is higher than in natural raw material
Uranium which contains more U-235 isotope than natural uranium
a) the content of atoms of a certain isotope in the isotopic mixture of the same element, if this exceeds the share of the given isotope in a naturally occurring mixture (expressed as a percentage);
Neutrons with kinetic energy higher than certain definite value. In Nuclear Reactor Physics fast neutrons are those with energies above 0.1 MeV
According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, the pool of funds that is:
A package of fuel elements (rods, bars, plates and others) held together with the aid of spacer grids and other structural elements, which are integral during transportation and in-pile irradiation. Assemblies are loaded into the nuclear reactor core.
A pellet of compacted uranium dioxide is the basis of nuclear fuel and is contained inside fuel elements.
Nuclear fuel production, generally in the form of ceramic pellets enclosed in metal tubes (fuel elements), which are subsequently assembled in fuel assemblies (FA)
Metal tubes in the active zone of the reactor containing oxide fuel pellets
Equipment intended to obtaining enriched uranium required for operation of nuclear reactors of nuclear power plants
Gas Diffusion Technology
Gas-diffusion method for separating uranium isotopes, based on phenomenon of molecular diffusion through the micropores in a membrane (barrier).
Global Reporting Initiative, GRI
An international reporting system concerning economic, environmental and social performance, based on the Sustainability Reporting Standards.
Liquid or gas used for heat transfer from the active zone of the reactor to steam generators or directly to the turbines
According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, people’s competencies, capabilities and experience, and their motivations, including:
Indirect Energy Use (Consumption)
Indirect energy use (consumption) indicates the amount of energy required for production by the reporting company of the consumed or purchased externally (i.e. produced outside the company) electric energy, steam, heat energy and other types of intermediate energy.
Integrated report represents brief overview that reveals how strategy, corporate management, activities and prospects in the context of the environment lead to value creation over the short, medium and long-term periods
According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, organizational knowledge-based intangibles
ISAE 3000 International Standard on Assurance Engagements
The Standard of the International Federation of Accountants “The performance of assurance engagements other than audits and reviews of historical financial information”
According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, manufactured physical objects (as distinct from natural physical objects) that are available to an organization for use in the production of goods or the provision of services, including:
Maximum Permissible Dose
The maximum value of the individual equivalent radiation dose per year, which does not cause unfavorable changes in health after 50 years of uniform exposure
According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, these are:
Working time minus time of scheduled breaks
An elementary particle with no net electric charge; can be found in each atomic nucleus except for hydrogen. Single neutrons moving with different speeds are released during the fission reaction. Slow (thermal) neutrons, in their turn, can easily cause fission of nuclei of “fissionable” isotopes, e.g., U-235, Pu-239, U-233; fast neutrons can cause fission of “fertile” isotope nuclei, e.g. U-238. Sometimes atomic nuclei can capture neutrons.
Internal energy of atomic nuclei released by nuclear fission or nuclear reactions
Any facility that generates, processes or handles radioactive or fissionable materials
A material containing fissionable nuclides which, being placed in the nuclear reactor, makes it possible to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear Fuel Cycle
The sequence of manufacturing processes for ensuring the operation of nuclear reactors from uranium production to the disposal of radioactive waste.
Nuclear Fuel Depletion
Reduction of any nuclide concentration in nuclear fuel due to nuclear transformations of this nuclide during the reactor operation
Branch of power engineering that uses nuclear energy for electricity and heat supply purposes
A unit wherein a controlled chain nuclear reaction with energy release takes place. Reactors are classified according to their purpose, carrier type, design and other characteristics
Radioactive materials generated on various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, including development of uranium deposits, enrichment, fuel production, reactor operation, fuel processing, etc.
Type of atom with a definite number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus characterized by an atomic mass and atomic (order) number
Any substance with an ozone-depleting potential higher than 0, that can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Most of ozone-depleting substances, including chlorofluorohydrocarbons, halons and methylbromide, fall under the Montreal protocol as amended
Phase Gate Approach to Investment
A principle of planning and carrying out investment activities applied to divide investment processes into phases, where each phase is preceded by Gate Review of the results achieved and the further project implementation plans and risk, and a decision is made on the further project implementation phase to be proceeded to.
One of the NPP reactors with necessary additional equipment
Pre-test assembly program
A stage in the nuclear plant commissioning from the power start-up to the plant’s acceptance for commercial operation.
Primary Energy Sources
Initial form of energy used to satisfy energy requirements of the reporting organization. Examples of primary sources include non-renewable energy sources, e.g. coal, natural gas, oil and nuclear energy.
Acquisition of information on the radiological conditions in the organisation and in the environment and on human exposure levels (includes dose control and radiometric monitoring).
A set of arrangements seeking to limit the exposure of personnel and the public to the lowest possible radiation dose values in a socially acceptable way, as well as to avoid the early effects of exposure and keep the delayed radiation effects within tolerable limits.
Radionuclide emission into the atmosphere resulting from operation of a nuclear facility
Isotopes with unstable nuclei undergoing radioactive decay
Nuclear materials and radioactive substances that no longer can be used
Radioactive Waste Processing
Technological operations aimed at altering the aggregative state and/or physic-chemical properties of radioactive waste and their transformation into forms suitable for transportation, storage and/or disposal
Radioactive Waste Treatment
General term that covers all activities related to the processing, conditioning, transportation, storage and burial of radioactive waste
General name for radioactive atoms. They pose a great danger to environment
Uranium separated from spent nuclear fuel in the process of radio-chemical reprocessing for repeated use in nuclear fuel (regenerated fuel)
Rehabilitation of Contaminated Areas
Reduction of the extent of radioactive contamination to the level ensuring the maximum protection of population and recovery of all elements of the ecosystem (water, soil, air) to the applicable normative level
A nuclear reactor designed to be used as research object with a view to obtain data on reactor physics and technology required for design and development of a reactor of the same type or of components thereof.
Social and Relationship Capital
According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, – the institutions and the relationships within the Company and between the Company and different groups of stakeholders and other communities aimed to enhance collective well-being.
A system of institutes and mechanisms of coordination of the interests of the production process participants (workers, employers, state authorities, local self-government) based on equal cooperation
Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing
A complex of chemical processes intended to remove fission products from spent nuclear fuel and fissile material recovery for reuse
Uranium hexafluoride production
Complex of special structures and equipment intended for storage or burial of radioactive, toxic and other tailing materials called tails
Directors General, Deputies Director-General
Chemical engineering process of uranium-containing materials transformation into uranium hexafluoride.
a chemical compound of uranium and fluorine (UF6). This is the only highly volatile uranium-fluorine compound (when heated to 53оC, uranium hexafluoride passes from solid into gas); it is used as raw material for separation of uranium-238 and uranium-235 isotopes using a gas-diffusion technology or a gas-centrifuge technology, and for production of enriched uranium.
Uranium Ore Enrichment
Combination of processes for the primary treatment of uranium-bearing mineral raw material to separate uranium from other minerals contained in the ore. This does not involve any changes in the content of minerals, but only mechanical separation thereof with the resultant production of an ore concentrate.
Water-water energetic reactor with water used as heat carrier and decelerator. The most common type of Russian NPP reactors has two modifications: VVER-440 and VVER-1000
Share of networking time that the worker is doing operations according to technological process and current workplace management.