Annual Report 2018
New Businesses and Products
TVEL Fuel Company of Rosatom
Annual Report 2018
Terms and definitions



Ash and Slag

Waste generated from solid fuel burning.

Becquerel (bq)

A unit of radionuclide activity in the radiation source, equal to nuclide activity where one nucleus decays per second

Burnup Fraction

Fraction of an initial quantity of a given nuclide that has undergone burnup in reactor under the neutrons influence

Business Model

According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, business model is a system of transforming the capitals through business activity aiming to fulfil strategic purposes and create value over the short-, medium- and long term


According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, resources and relations being the source and the results of value (integrated value) creation processes.

Circulating water

Water that has been used in the processing cycle, and after cooling or purification it is used for the same purposes.

Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Nuclear fuel cycle where spent nuclear fuel is processed for uranium and plutonium extraction for nuclear fuel remanufacturing


Decommissioning of a reactor facility and follow-up activity to ensure its safe dismantling, equipment disposal and further use of the site

Depleted Uranium

Uranium that contains less isotopes U-235 than natural uranium

Depleted Uranium

Uranium depleted through extraction of U-235, which is economically unfeasible to use; stored at a disposal site (dump)

Dump of Radioactive Material

Controlled entry of radionuclides into water bodies with liquid waste of a nuclear facility.

Enriched Nuclear Fuel

Nuclear fuel where the content of fissionable nuclides is higher than in natural raw material

Enriched Uranium

Uranium which contains more U-235 isotope than natural uranium
Reactor quality uranium is usually enriched approximately to 3.5% U-235, and the content of U-235 in weapon-grade uranium is over 90%

Enrichment (isotopic)

a) the content of atoms of a certain isotope in the isotopic mixture of the same element, if this exceeds the share of the given isotope in a naturally occurring mixture (expressed as a percentage);
b) process resulting in an increased content of a certain isotope in the isotopic mixture.

Fast Neutrons

Neutrons with kinetic energy higher than certain definite value. In Nuclear Reactor Physics fast neutrons are those with energies above 0.1 MeV

Financial Capital

According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, the pool of funds that is:
- available to an organization for use in the production of goods or the provision of services;
- obtained through borrowings, equity or grants, or generated through operations or investments

Fuel Assembly

A package of fuel elements (rods, bars, plates and others) held together with the aid of spacer grids and other structural elements, which are integral during transportation and in-pile irradiation. Assemblies are loaded into the nuclear reactor core.

Fuel Pellet

A pellet of compacted uranium dioxide is the basis of nuclear fuel and is contained inside fuel elements.

Fuel Production

Nuclear fuel production, generally in the form of ceramic pellets enclosed in metal tubes (fuel elements), which are subsequently assembled in fuel assemblies (FA)

Fuel-Element Cladding

Metal tubes in the active zone of the reactor containing oxide fuel pellets

Gas Centrifuge

Equipment intended to obtaining enriched uranium required for operation of nuclear reactors of nuclear power plants

Gas Diffusion Technology

Gas-diffusion method for separating uranium isotopes, based on phenomenon of molecular diffusion through the micropores in a membrane (barrier).

Global Reporting Initiative, GRI

An international reporting system concerning economic, environmental and social performance, based on the Sustainability Reporting Standards.

Heat Carrier

Liquid or gas used for heat transfer from the active zone of the reactor to steam generators or directly to the turbines

Human Capital

According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, people’s competencies, capabilities and experience, and their motivations, including:
- alignment with and support for an organization’s governance framework, risk management approach, and ethical values;
- ability to understand, develop and implement an organization’s strategy;
- loyalties and motivations for improving processes, including their ability to lead, manage and collaborate

Indirect Energy Use (Consumption)

Indirect energy use (consumption) indicates the amount of energy required for production by the reporting company of the consumed or purchased externally (i.e. produced outside the company) electric energy, steam, heat energy and other types of intermediate energy.

Integrated Report

Integrated report represents brief overview that reveals how strategy, corporate management, activities and prospects in the context of the environment lead to value creation over the short, medium and long-term periods

Intellectual Capital

According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, organizational knowledge-based intangibles

ISAE 3000 International Standard on Assurance Engagements

The Standard of the International Federation of Accountants “The performance of assurance engagements other than audits and reviews of historical financial information”

Manufactured Capital

According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, manufactured physical objects (as distinct from natural physical objects) that are available to an organization for use in the production of goods or the provision of services, including:
- buildings and structures;
- equipment;
- infrastructure

Maximum Permissible Dose

The maximum value of the individual equivalent radiation dose per year, which does not cause unfavorable changes in health after 50 years of uniform exposure

Natural Capital

According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, these are:
- renewable and non-renewable environmental resources and processes, including - air, water, land, minerals and forests,
- biodiversity and eco-system health

Networking time

Working time minus time of scheduled breaks


An elementary particle with no net electric charge; can be found in each atomic nucleus except for hydrogen. Single neutrons moving with different speeds are released during the fission reaction. Slow (thermal) neutrons, in their turn, can easily cause fission of nuclei of “fissionable” isotopes, e.g., U-235, Pu-239, U-233; fast neutrons can cause fission of “fertile” isotope nuclei, e.g. U-238. Sometimes atomic nuclei can capture neutrons.

Nuclear Energy

Internal energy of atomic nuclei released by nuclear fission or nuclear reactions

Nuclear Facility

Any facility that generates, processes or handles radioactive or fissionable materials

Nuclear Fuel

A material containing fissionable nuclides which, being placed in the nuclear reactor, makes it possible to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.

Nuclear Fuel Cycle

The sequence of manufacturing processes for ensuring the operation of nuclear reactors from uranium production to the disposal of radioactive waste.

Nuclear Fuel Depletion

Reduction of any nuclide concentration in nuclear fuel due to nuclear transformations of this nuclide during the reactor operation

Nuclear Power

Branch of power engineering that uses nuclear energy for electricity and heat supply purposes

Nuclear Reactor

A unit wherein a controlled chain nuclear reaction with energy release takes place. Reactors are classified according to their purpose, carrier type, design and other characteristics

Nuclear Waste

Radioactive materials generated on various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, including development of uranium deposits, enrichment, fuel production, reactor operation, fuel processing, etc.


Type of atom with a definite number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus characterized by an atomic mass and atomic (order) number

Ozone-Depleting Substances

Any substance with an ozone-depleting potential higher than 0, that can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Most of ozone-depleting substances, including chlorofluorohydrocarbons, halons and methylbromide, fall under the Montreal protocol as amended

Phase Gate Approach to Investment

A principle of planning and carrying out investment activities applied to divide investment processes into phases, where each phase is preceded by Gate Review of the results achieved and the further project implementation plans and risk, and a decision is made on the further project implementation phase to be proceeded to.

Power Unit

One of the NPP reactors with necessary additional equipment

Pre-test assembly program

A stage in the nuclear plant commissioning from the power start-up to the plant’s acceptance for commercial operation.

Primary Energy Sources

Initial form of energy used to satisfy energy requirements of the reporting organization. Examples of primary sources include non-renewable energy sources, e.g. coal, natural gas, oil and nuclear energy.
They also include such renewable sources as biomass, sun and wind energy, geothermal and hydraulic energy

Radiation Monitoring

Acquisition of information on the radiological conditions in the organisation and in the environment and on human exposure levels (includes dose control and radiometric monitoring).

Radiation Safety

A set of arrangements seeking to limit the exposure of personnel and the public to the lowest possible radiation dose values in a socially acceptable way, as well as to avoid the early effects of exposure and keep the delayed radiation effects within tolerable limits.

Radioactive Discharge

Radionuclide emission into the atmosphere resulting from operation of a nuclear facility

Radioactive Isotopes

Isotopes with unstable nuclei undergoing radioactive decay

Radioactive Waste

Nuclear materials and radioactive substances that no longer can be used

Radioactive Waste Processing

Technological operations aimed at altering the aggregative state and/or physic-chemical properties of radioactive waste and their transformation into forms suitable for transportation, storage and/or disposal

Radioactive Waste Treatment

General term that covers all activities related to the processing, conditioning, transportation, storage and burial of radioactive waste


General name for radioactive atoms. They pose a great danger to environment

Regenerated Uranium

Uranium separated from spent nuclear fuel in the process of radio-chemical reprocessing for repeated use in nuclear fuel (regenerated fuel)

Rehabilitation of Contaminated Areas

Reduction of the extent of radioactive contamination to the level ensuring the maximum protection of population and recovery of all elements of the ecosystem (water, soil, air) to the applicable normative level

Research Reactor

A nuclear reactor designed to be used as research object with a view to obtain data on reactor physics and technology required for design and development of a reactor of the same type or of components thereof.

Social and Relationship Capital

According to the International Integrated Reporting Framework, – the institutions and the relationships within the Company and between the Company and different groups of stakeholders and other communities aimed to enhance collective well-being.

Social Partnership

A system of institutes and mechanisms of coordination of the interests of the production process participants (workers, employers, state authorities, local self-government) based on equal cooperation

Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

A complex of chemical processes intended to remove fission products from spent nuclear fuel and fissile material recovery for reuse

Sublimation Production

Uranium hexafluoride production

Tailing Dump

Complex of special structures and equipment intended for storage or burial of radioactive, toxic and other tailing materials called tails

Top Management

Directors General, Deputies Director-General

Uranium Conversion

Chemical engineering process of uranium-containing materials transformation into uranium hexafluoride.

Uranium Hexafluoride

a chemical compound of uranium and fluorine (UF6). This is the only highly volatile uranium-fluorine compound (when heated to 53оC, uranium hexafluoride passes from solid into gas); it is used as raw material for separation of uranium-238 and uranium-235 isotopes using a gas-diffusion technology or a gas-centrifuge technology, and for production of enriched uranium.

Uranium Ore Enrichment

Combination of processes for the primary treatment of uranium-bearing mineral raw material to separate uranium from other minerals contained in the ore. This does not involve any changes in the content of minerals, but only mechanical separation thereof with the resultant production of an ore concentrate.


Water-water energetic reactor with water used as heat carrier and decelerator. The most common type of Russian NPP reactors has two modifications: VVER-440 and VVER-1000

Worker capacity

Share of networking time that the worker is doing operations according to technological process and current workplace management.